James Island is an island in the Gambia River, 30km from the river mouth and near Juffureh in the country of The Gambia. It contains a fort known as Fort James. It is less than two miles from Albreda on the river's northern bank that served a similar purpose for the French.
The first European settlers on the island were Baltic Germans from Duchy of Courland, who also had other colonial possessions in the area. They called it St. Andrews Island, though the Island had previously been granted to two separate companies by the British Crown in 1588 and 1618. In 1651 they built a fort named Jacob Fort after Jacob Kettler, the Duke of Courland and used it as a trade base. It was then briefly held by the Dutch from 1659 until it was captured by the British in 1661 and formally ceded to them in 1664.