Vozrozhdeniya Island, also known as Renaissance Island (literally - The Island of Rebirth) (Uzbek Tiklanish orollari; Russian Остров Возрождения), is a former island, now a peninsula, in the Aral Sea. It became a peninsula in 2002, due to ongoing shrinkage of the Aral Sea. It is now shared by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
Located in the central Aral Sea, Vozrozhdeniya Island was one of the main laboratories and testing sites for the Soviet Union government’s Microbiological Warfare Group. In 1948, a top-secret Soviet bioweapons laboratory was established here. Word of the island's danger was further spread by Soviet defectors, including Ken Alibek, the former head of the Soviet Union's bioweapons program. It was here, according to just released documents, that anthrax spores and bubonic plague bacilli were weaponized and stored. The main town on the island was Kantubek, which lies in ruins today, but once had approximately 1,500 inhabitants.